Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been the mainstay of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment for approximately 30 years. Although the continuous introduction of novel agents in the armamentarium against MM has questioned its value, ASCT remains a backbone treatment for fit MM patients. However, there is no unanimous approach for several aspects including the positioning of ASCT in the therapeutic algorithm either upfront or following the first relapse, the need for single or tandem ASCT, as well as the role of ASCT as salvage therapy. Furthermore, the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies along with the next generation proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs provide a platform for optimizing the induction and consolidation/maintenance regimens. In this review, we present current data pertaining to all aspects of ASCT in MM, whereas we highlight the open issues that should be addressed in the design of future clinical trials in the field.
Autologous stem cell transplant; Induction; Maintenance; Multiple myeloma; Novel agents; Salvage
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