ΑρχικήΕπιστημονικά άρθραΝευρολογίαCurrent knowledge on multiple sclerosis pathophysiology, disability progression assessment and treatment options, and the role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects nearly 2.8 million people each year. MS distinguishes three main types: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). RRMS is the most common type, with the majority of patients eventually progressing to SPMS, in which neurological development is constant, whereas PPMS is characterized by a progressive course from disease onset. New or additional insights into the role of effector and regulatory cells of the immune and CNS systems, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and the microbiome in the pathophysiology of MS have emerged, which may lead to the development of more targeted therapies that can halt or reverse neurodegeneration. Depending on the type and severity of the disease, various disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are currently used for RRMS/SPMS and PPMS. As a last resort, and especially in highly active RRMS that does not respond to DMTs, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is performed and has shown good results in reducing neuroinflammation. Nevertheless, the question of its potential role in preventing disability progression remains open. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on MS pathophysiology, assessment of MS disability progression and current treatments, and to examine the potential role of AHSCT in preventing disability progression.
Keywords: AHSCT; B cells; DMTs; Disability progression; EBV; MS progression; Microbiome; Microglia; Regulatory cells; T cells.